Research Article

Effect of the Plant Extract Pongamia Pinnata against Polyphagous Pest Mylabris Indica

Jeyapandi R1* and Shunmugavelu M2

1Department of Biochemistry, The American College, Tamil Nadu, India

2PG and Research Department of Zoology, Vivekananda College, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding author: Jeyapandi R, Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, The American College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Received Date: 10 Dec, 2019 ; Accepted Date: 02 Jan, 2020 ; Published Date: 08 Jan, 2020

Abstract

Plant products play important role in evolving an ecologically sound and environmentally acceptable disease management system. Plant extracts are safer to use, non toxic to target organism and do not leave residues in the environment. Chemical control was found to be successful. But due to pesticidal pollution posed by excessive and indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides, plant products have drawn the attention of present research in plant protection.

The efficacy of Pongamia pinnata on biochemical content of polyphagous pest Mylabris indica has been studied. The effect of plant extract of Pongamia pinnata at the post feeding and post treatment phase and the level of carbohydrate, protein and lipid have been investigated. The level of carbohydrate decreased to 22, 53 and 61 % respectively. The protein content is also decreased to 26, 48 and 74% respectively. The lipid level was decreased to 28, 36 and 65%.

Keywords

Mylabris indica; Carbohydrate; Protein, Lipid, Pongamia pinnata

Introduction

Natural pesticides are active principles derived from plants for the management of human and animal pest organisms or it can be said to be biologically active ingredients, principally derived from plants, for the management of human and animal pest organisms [1]. Botanical pesticides are easily biodegradable and their use in crop protection is a practically sustainable alternative. It maintains biological diversity of predators and reduces environmental contamination and human health hazards. The use of plant extracts to control destructive insects pests or disease vectors is not new. Rotenone (Derris Spp), nicotine and pyrethrins have been used for a considerable time in small-scale subsistence and also in commercial agriculture [2-4].

Insect-pests are known to cause significant damage to crops and affect agricultural productivity. The monetary loss due to feeding by larvae and adult insects alone contributes to billion dollars per annum [5]. The increasing concern for environmental safety and global demand for pesticide residue free food has evoked keen interest in pest control through eco-friendly plant products which are easily biodegradable and do not leave any harmful toxic residues besides conserving natural enemies [6-8].

Material and Methods

M. indica are small, black and easily recognized by the yellow striped on elytra. Mouth parts are of biting and chewing type [9]. Blister beetles have entirely different feeding habits as adults and larvae. The adults feed on flowers. The larvae are mostly beneficial and do not feed on plant. The larvae attack the eggs of harmful insects like grass-hopper and locusts [10].

M.indica was collected in and around T.Kalluppatti, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu. To avoid genetic variation, beetles were collected from the same locality for each experimental series. Thus stock animal was allowed to acclimatize to the laboratory temperature 28±2°C with relative humidity of 80±5%. During this period, insects were fed with fresh flowers of host plant Hibiscus rosasinesis. The beetles of required body weight, size were chosen for present investigation.

Adult beetles of similar size were isolated and reared separately in plastic containers and fed daily with Hibiscus rosasinesis flower soaked in different concentration (2, 6 and 10%) of P. pinnata plant extract. Soaking of flowers in the plant extract is done for period of 10 seconds. Similarly control was fed daily with fresh flowers. Fresh food was provided daily. The biochemical profiles of protein, carbohydrate and lipid are estimated as methods of lowry et al., Seifter et al., and Bragdon [11-13].

Result and Discussion

After sufficient trials on various percentage of extract on different weight groups 3, 5, and 7% were firmly justified for treatment studies. The response was similar to the earlier studies. The M.indica chosen for the above treatment percentages are respectively on lower, ideal and higher weight group M.indica (351-550mg, 451-650mg, and 501-700mg). The 2% extract on lower weighed groups hadmortality on 8th day . But 6% and 10% extract on ideal and higher weight groups had mortality on 10th day.

The adult beetle M.indica exposed to extract experienced a decline in protein content. The reduction in total protein in the body tissues of Euproctis fraterna larva treated with carrot seed extract was reported by Chockalingam et al., Jeyapandi and Shunmugavelu, Reddy [14-16] suggested that decreased protein content in toxicant treated animal may be due to binding of insecticides of cellular components. The reduction of protein may be due to the formulation of tannin-protein complex. The protein level of M.indica on treatment with A.indica display distinct dose dependent decline. In P. pinnata the impact was more with 2, 6 and 10% as 26, 48 and 74% (Table 1 and Figure 1). The lipid level was decreased to 28, 36 and 65%.

Carbohydrate content of the plant extract treated beetles was less when compared to control. Such depletion may be due to the utilization of the sugar at the time of high energy demands warranted by the altered metabolism caused by toxic stress as suggested by Noorjahan, Jeyapandi, Beck [17-19] has reported that the insufficient amount of carbohydrate result in sub optimal growth. Carrot seed extract treatments Chokkalingam et al., [14] caused considerable depletion in sugar content of Euproctis fraterna. Nalina Sundari [20] reported that alkaloids of V.rosea, D.metal and E. globules significantly diminished the carbohydrate content of Euproetis fraterna. Carbohydrate represents the principal and immediate energy for precursors for animals exposed to stress condition while protein being the energy source to spare during chronic periods of stress. M.indica treated with P.pinnata responded in 2, 6 and 10% extract and degrease were 22, 53 and 61% respectively. It clearly indicated a dose dependent decline in level of carbohydrate.

The rise in lipid level of M.indica during toxic stress of plant extracts has also been observed. The rise in lipid level may be an adaption to overcome the toxic stress created by the plant extract. A reduction in lipid content in M.indica was also observed due to the higher treatment of the plant extract [21]. Total lipid control was decreased in plant extract treated insects when compared to control [22-23]. The lipid level of M.indica on treatment with P.pinnata the impact was more with 2, 6 and 10% as 28, 36 and 65%. Nalinasundari [20] has observed due to the similar treatment. Hence, the present study suggested that P.pinnata plant extract have drastic impediments on growth performance, basic biochemical profiles and associated parameters.

 

Figure 1: Showing the impact of plant extract of P. pinnata on the chosen biochemical profiles of M. indica (average of measures of different weight groups).

Table 1: Impact of plant extract of P.pinnata on the chosen biochemical profiles of M. indica (average ofmeasures of different weight groups).

Control/Treated groups

Protein (mg)

Carbohydrate (mg)

Lipid (mg)

Control

2.65 ± 0.28

2.32 ± 0.31

1.67 ± 0.16

2%

2.25 ± 0.25 [26.14%]

1.93 ± 0.27 [22.41%]

1.46 ± 0.13 [28.42%]

6%

1.85 ± 0.23 [48.32%]

1.37 ± 0.23 [53.14%]

1.28 ± 0.12 [36.43%]

10%

1.18 ± 0.21 [74.37%]

0.91 ± 0.17 [61.28%]

0.79 ± 0.10 [65.24%]

Each data is a Measure of mean ± SD of 3 estimations.

Figures in parenthesis in decrease.

Citation: Jeyapandi R, Shunmugavelu M (2020) Effect of the Plant Extract Pongamia Pinnata against Polyphagous Pest Mylabris Indica. Rev Biotechnol Biochem 1: 001. RBB-001.000001